Alexandra Taracanova 1 2, Mihail Alevizos 1, Anna Karagkouni 1, Zuiy Weng 1 2, Errol Norwitz 3, Pio Conti 4, Susan E Leeman 5, Theoharis C Theoharides 6 2 7
Abstract: The peptide substance P (SP) and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in inflammatory processes. Mast cells are recognized as important in inflammatory responses. Here, we report that IL-33 (30 ng/mL), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, administered in combination with SP (1 µM), markedly increase (by 1,000-fold) TNF gene expression in cultured human LAD2 and primary mast cells derived from umbilical cord blood. SP (0.01-1 μM) and IL-33 (1-100 ng/mL) in combination also greatly stimulate TNF secretion (by 4,500-fold). Pretreatment of LAD2 cells with two different neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists and siRNA inhibits TNF secretion by 50% (P < 0.001) when stimulated by SP and IL-33. Pretreatment of LAD2 cells with a neutralizing antibody for IL-33 receptor, ST2, inhibits TNF secretion by 50% (P < 0.001), and ST2 siRNA decreases TNF secretion by 30% (P < 0.05), when stimulated by SP and IL-33. Surprisingly, NK-1 antagonists also inhibit 50% of TNF secretion (P < 0.001) when stimulated only by IL-33, and ST2 receptor reduction also decreases SP-stimulated TNF secretion by 30% (P < 0.05), suggesting an interaction between NK-1 and ST2 receptors. Moreover, IL-33 increases NK-1 gene and surface protein expression, as well as IKβ–α phosphorylation. Pretreatment of LAD2 cells with 5,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (methoxyluteolin) (1-100 μM) inhibits (P < 0.001) TNF gene expression (98%) and secretion (64%) at 50 µM and phosphorylation of p-IKB-α at 1 μM when stimulated by SP and IL-33. These findings identify a unique amplification process of TNF synthesis and secretion via the interaction of NK-1 and ST2 receptors inhibitable by methoxyluteolin.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
2017 May 16;114(20):E4002-E4009.
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